Source available on GitHub.

Particle Renderer

There is some stuff out there about soft particles, but I thought it'd be helpful to show you how easy it can be to implement this in a deferred rendering system. These files are based on Microsoft's 3D particle sample. To fully implement them in your game, use Microsoft's code, and adjust it using this as a reference.

You want to use soft particles to prevent hard clipping when a particle is cut off by something else. You slowly fade them out, making effects like smoke much more convincing.

Look at the fire particles colliding with the ground in this screenshot. Notice how the particle fades out, instead of clipping off suddenly.


This is the HLSL (shader code) for my particles. The part relevant to soft particles is in the Pixel shader at the very end. If you have the depth information for the scene already, like you would in this deferred rendering example, soft particles are trivial. Simply compare your particle's depth to the scene's depth, and fade out the pixel based on how close it is close to being clipped.

* This is based on Microsoft's 3D particle samnple for XNA (
* My version is compatible with MonoGame's shader language, works with a deferred rendering system, 
* has soft particles, and more options for rotation and color change over time.
//you can find this file in the full GitHub download
#include "Macros.fxh"
Texture2D<float4> Texture : register(t0); 
sampler TextureSampler : register(s0);
Texture2D<float4> DepthMap : register(t2); 
sampler DepthMapSampler : register(s2);
cbuffer Parameters : register (b0) 
    float4x4 View;
    float4x4 Projection;
    float2 ViewportScale;
    float CurrentTime;
    float Duration;
    float DurationRandomness;
    float3 Gravity;
    float EndVelocity;
	bool MultiStageColor;
    float4 MinColor;
	float4 Color2;
	float4 Color3;
    float4 MaxColor;
    float2 Rotation;
	bool StaticRotation;
    float2 StartSize;
    float2 EndSize;
	float Zoom;
struct VSInputTx 
    float2 Corner : SV_Position;
    float3 Pos : NORMAL0;
    float3 Velocity : NORMAL1;
    float4 Random : COLOR0;
    float Time : TEXCOORD0;
    float SizePercent : TEXCOORD1;
struct VSOutputTx 
    float4 Pos : SV_Position;
    float4 Color : COLOR0;
    float2 TextureCoordinate : TEXCOORD0;
	float4 ScreenPos : TEXCOORD1;
float4 ComputeParticlePosition(float3 position, float3 velocity, float age, float normalizedAge)
	if(!(velocity.x == 0 && velocity.y == 0 && velocity.z == 0))
		float startVelocity = length(velocity);
		float endVelocity = startVelocity * EndVelocity;
		float velocityIntegral = startVelocity * normalizedAge + (endVelocity - startVelocity) * normalizedAge * normalizedAge / 2;
		position += normalize(velocity) * velocityIntegral * Duration;
	position += Gravity * age * normalizedAge;
    return mul(mul(float4(position, 1), View), Projection);
float ComputeParticleSize(float randomValue, float normalizedAge)
    float startSize = lerp(StartSize.x, StartSize.y, randomValue);
    float endSize = lerp(EndSize.x, EndSize.y, randomValue);
    float size = lerp(startSize, endSize, normalizedAge);
    return size * Projection._m11;
float4 ComputeParticleColor(float4 projectedPosition, float normalizedAge)
	float4 color;
		if(normalizedAge < .33f)
			color = lerp(MinColor, Color2, normalizedAge * 3);
		else if(normalizedAge < .66f)
			color = lerp(Color2, Color3, (normalizedAge - .33) * 3);
			color = lerp(Color3, MaxColor, (normalizedAge - .66) * 3);
		color = lerp(MinColor, MaxColor, normalizedAge);
	color.a *= normalizedAge * (1-normalizedAge) * (1-normalizedAge) * 6.7;
    return color;
float2x2 ComputeParticleRotation(float randomValue, float age)
	float rotation = lerp(Rotation.x, Rotation.y, randomValue);
	//if SetRotation is true, then the particle will not keep rotating, but stay at the given rotation
		rotation = rotation * age;
	float c = cos(rotation);
	float s = sin(rotation);
	return float2x2(c, -s, s, c);
VSOutputTx VS(VSInputTx input)
    VSOutputTx output;
    float age = CurrentTime - input.Time;
    age *= 1 + input.Random.x * DurationRandomness;
    float normalizedAge = saturate(age / Duration);
    output.Pos = ComputeParticlePosition(input.Pos, input.Velocity, age, normalizedAge);
    float size = ComputeParticleSize(input.Random.y, normalizedAge);
	//if this system isn't being rotated, don't bother calculating rotation
	if(Rotation.x != 0 || Rotation.y != 0)
		float2x2 rotation = ComputeParticleRotation(input.Random.w, age);
		output.Pos.xy += mul(input.Corner, rotation) * size * input.SizePercent * ViewportScale;
		output.Pos.xy += input.Corner * size * input.SizePercent * ViewportScale;
    output.Color = ComputeParticleColor(output.Pos, normalizedAge);
    output.TextureCoordinate = (input.Corner + 1) / 2;
	output.ScreenPos = output.Pos;
    return output;
float4 PS(VSOutputTx input) : SV_Target
	float particleDepth = input.ScreenPos.z / input.ScreenPos.w;
	input.ScreenPos.xy /= input.ScreenPos.w;
	float2 texCoord = .5f * (float2(input.ScreenPos.x, -input.ScreenPos.y) + 1);
	float sceneDepth = DepthMap.Sample(DepthMapSampler, texCoord).r;
	if(particleDepth > sceneDepth)
	//The 'magic number' in this line is based on the scale of Metagalactic Blitz's screen space and camera. 
	//Adjust this as necessary for your own game to get the particles to blend nicely.
	float fade = (sceneDepth - particleDepth) * 312.5f * Zoom; 
    float4 color = Texture.Sample(TextureSampler, input.TextureCoordinate) * input.Color;
    color.a = min(color.a, fade);
    return color;
TECHNIQUE(Particles, VS, PS);


The vertex declaration that goes with the particles.

using Microsoft.Xna.Framework;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Graphics;
using Microsoft.Xna.Framework.Graphics.PackedVector;
namespace MGB
    /// <summary>
    /// Custom vertex structure for drawing particles.
    /// </summary>
    struct ParticleVertex
        // Stores which corner of the particle quad this vertex represents.
        public Vector2 Corner;
        // Stores the starting position of the particle.
        public Vector3 Position;
        // Stores the starting velocity of the particle.
        public Vector3 Velocity;
        // Four random values, used to make each particle look slightly different.
        public Color Random;
        // The time (in seconds) at which this particle was created.
        public float Time;
        //Stores the percent of the normal size this particle will be
        public float SizePercent;
        // Describe the layout of this vertex structure.
        public static readonly VertexDeclaration VertexDeclaration = new VertexDeclaration
            new VertexElement(0, VertexElementFormat.Vector2, VertexElementUsage.Position, 0),
            new VertexElement(8, VertexElementFormat.Vector3, VertexElementUsage.Normal, 0),
            new VertexElement(20, VertexElementFormat.Vector3, VertexElementUsage.Normal, 1),
            new VertexElement(32, VertexElementFormat.Color, VertexElementUsage.Color, 0),
            new VertexElement(36, VertexElementFormat.Single, VertexElementUsage.TextureCoordinate, 0),
            new VertexElement(40, VertexElementFormat.Single, VertexElementUsage.TextureCoordinate, 1)
        // Describe the size of this vertex structure.
        public const int SizeInBytes = 44;